Posts Tagged ‘anti-cancer’

For women

Hormone replacement therapy

Hormone replacement therapy used to treat menopausal symptoms increases women’s risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

The risk of illness is especially high for women who have had hormone therapy for more than five years.

In particular, hormone therapy, including oestrogen and progesterone or progestogen, increases the risk of breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy with oestrogen alone also slightly increases the risk of uterine cancer.

“Risks are always assessed individually.”

Hormone replacement therapy can effectively treat menopausal symptoms. However, it is worth considering carefully whether you should opt for long-term hormone replacement therapy. With your own physician, It’s important to weigh the pluses and minuses of hormone therapy with your doctor.

After stopping hormone replacement therapy, the risk of illness returns to the normal level.

Contraceptive pills

Contraceptive pills containing oestrogen and progestogen (progesterone), reduce the risk of some cancers and increase the risk of certain other cancers.

Combined oral contraceptive pills slightly increase the risk of breast cancer and cervical cancer. At the same time, they reduce the risk of uterine cancer and ovarian cancer.

Risks are always assessed individually. Talk to your doctor whether there is a potential risk with using contraceptives.

Breast feeding and childbirth

Breastfeeding has been proven to reduce the risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer to some extent. The longer a woman continue breast-feeding, the better the protection that breast feeding provides.

Child birth reduces women’s risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The younger a woman is when having children, the better the protection that childbirth provides. Also, having a larger number of children also provides better protection against breast cancer.

There are also numerous other health benefits from breast-feeding, both for children and mothers.

Read more about the benefits of breast-feeding:

Breast-feeding(opens in a new window) (THL)

Having children or breast-feeding do not always influence cancer risk. It is therefore best to focus on other lifestyle means to prevent cancer.


Screening for cervical cancer and breast cancer is arranged for women in Finland.


The skin cancer risk is also present in Finland, even though the sun is not as hot here in the warm countries in the South.

Skin cancer is almost always due to the sun’s UV rays. Up to 95% of skin cancer can be prevented by being properly protected from sunlight. The main way to protect yourself from solar radiation is to stay in the shade.

What cancer does UV radiation cause?

UV radiation causes skin cancer, such as melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basel-cell carcinoma.  The sun’s UV radiation is the leading risk factor for skin cancer. Repeated sunburn and life-long exposure to sunshine increase the risk of different skin cancers.

Skin cancers have become more common in recent decades. This is due to the aging of the population, but also to the fact that people wear lighter clothing when in the sun.


Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer because it spreads rapidly by metastasising. The burning of the skin at an early age further increases the risk of melanoma. Sunbathing and using solariums also increase its risk.

Melanoma has been the fastest growing cancer in the Western for decades. Melanoma typically develops on the skin of the body or limbs. By contrast with other skin cancers, melanoma occurs among relatively young people.

The risk of melanoma is greatest among those who have:

  • light skin that burns easily (skin type 1 and 2)
  • red or fair hair and pale-coloured eyes
  • lots of moles or freckles
  • melanoma in the family (heredity)
  • been repeatedly sunburned

Melanoma often develops as in the form of a new mole or change in the skin. It is estimated that a third of melanomas starts from a mole that already exists. Always consult your doctor if the appearance of a mole on your skin changes, or if you are concerned by appearance of a new mole.

Inspecting your moles (linkki)

Other types of skin cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma and basel-cell carcinoma develop mostly in older people as a result of prolonged exposure to the sun. These cancers mainly appear on the face and hands –  areas that are constantly exposed to sunshine. Basel-cell carcinoma is the most common of skin cancers, but also the least dangerous because it occurs locally and does not metastasise.  The prognoses concerning squamous cell carcinoma and basel-cell carcinoma are usually good.


Some eating habits, such as eating plenty of vegetables, reduce the risk of cancer, while others, such as using a lot of meat products, increase it.

Diet is a whole entity that is made up of individual, everyday choices. Even small decisions are accentuated in the long run.

It is ultimately difficult to estimate the degree to which having a healthy diet can prevent cancer, or how far unhealthy eating furthers the development of cancer. Eating involves many things, from food ingredients to eating habits and weight management. Calculating these things together is not straightforward.

However, experts have estimated that, by and large, with healthy food, weight management, and enough exercise we can prevent at least a third of the most common forms of cancer. Healthy eating also protects against many illnesses and helps you manage better day-to-day.

What kind of cancer does food protects us from, and what kind does it cause?

What and how we eat is linked to many cancer risks.

Eating affects the risk of cancer through many different mechanisms:

  • Some nutritional factors, such as meat products, can place one at risk of cancer
  • Carcinogens may be present in food due to contamination or impurities, for instance some aflatoxins, produced by moulds, that may also be in such things as nuts
  • Carcinogenic compounds may develop in food preparation, such as frying
  • Absent or insufficient nutritional factors in diet that protect against cancer, such as vegetables
  • Overweight increases the risk of certain types of cancer. Nutrition is an essential factor in weigh management
  • Your overall diet is nevertheless more essential than single nutrients.